Yale Law Library - Foreign and International Blog
November 2010 - Posts
World AIDS Day - December 1
December 1st marks World AIDS Day, commemorated
annually since 1988. Events will take place around the world. The day
is seen as one promoting human rights, and the campaign slogan is universal
access and human rights. There is a major rights campaign under the banner of Light for Rights.
According to the World Health Organization, as of 2009, there were 33.3 million
people living with HIV, including 2.7 million children. In 2009, 2.6 million
people were newly infected with HIV, and 1.8 million died because of the
Sub-Saharan Africa is
the area most affected by the virus. In 2009, it accounted for 67% of the infections
worldwide, 68% of new infections among adults, and 91% among children. It also
accounted for 72% of the world’s AIDS related deaths.
Law virtually touches on all things, and it is not
surprising that the Yale Law Library’s collection includes numerous books on
law as it relates to AIDS. A few recent examples of books especially bearing
onAIDS and human rights are the
- Jones, Peris S., AIDS Treatment and Human Rights in Context
- Dwasi, Jane A., The Human Right to Work in the Era of HIV and AIDS
- Engh, Ida-Eline, Developing
Capacity to Realise Socio-Economic Rights: The Right to Food in the
Context of HIV/AIDS in South Africa and Uganda
- Human Sciences Research Council,
Associates for Development, International Center for Research on Women, Women’s
Property Rights HIV and AIDS and Domestic Violence: Research Findings
From Two Districts in South Africa and Uganda
- Mapetia, Matseliso, Gender, HIV/AIDS, and the Law in Lesotho:
Embracing Rights-Based-Approach to Promote Women’s Sexual and ReproductionRights
There is also a great webpage that can lead you to the HIV/AIDS laws of the world: HIV/AIDS Laws of the World.
----- Daniel Wade
World Bank Law Libraries
The Doing Business Law Library is the largest free online collection of
business laws and regulations. Created by The Worldbank, the database links to official government sources
wherever possible. Translations are not official unless indicated
otherwise. The collection is updated regularly but cannot guarantee that laws are the most recent version.
The Doing Business Gender Law Library is a collection of
national legal provisions impacting women's economic status in 183 economies.
The database facilitates comparative analysis of legislation, serves as a
resource for research, and contributes to reforms that can enhance women’s full
economic participation. The laws are not always the most recent version, nor is
the library exhaustive, and the translations are not official unless indicated.
-- Thanks to Camilla for bringing this database to my attention some time ago!
Russian Silicon Valley: Russia creates new high-tech development zone
Seeking to create its own version of Silicon
Valley, the Russian government is building a new "technology
incubator" zone. In September 2010, President Dmitri Medvedev signed
a new law to establish the Skolkovo Innovation Center, located 20 kilometers west of Moscow. It will provide incentives for private companies
to engage in research and development and commercial application of new
technologies, focusing on information technology (IT), space research, nuclear
energy, environmental protection and energy-saving.
A special commission will consider applications for participation; over 40 companies have already submitted proposals. The Russian
authorities also plan to provide top-notch infrastructure and facilities, andthey have already allocated over $133 million to the project.
the new legislation, companies accepted as "members" of the Center
will be entitled to a variety of special privileges, including a 10-year
holiday from income, value-added, and property taxes; reimbursement of customs
duties for certain imported equipment; and rights to operate under streamlined
accounting and technical regulations. There are even plans for a new
court to be located in the Center that will handle intellectual property disputes,
with the goal of reducing IP infringement. From: Russian Law News.
----- Barbara Olszowa
Poland e-courts gain popularity
Poland's Justice Ministry estimates the number of online registered and reviewed court cases in Poland this year to be at half a million. More than 300,000 e-cases were filed by September, something not many had expected. There are speculations that some 100,000 people would take advantage of this solution, as altogether Polish courts reviewed 1.2 million cases last year. It turns out that almost half that
number will be referred to e-courts this year. This novel way of seeking court arbitration was introduced in Poland on January 1, 2010. Fees for online reviewed cases are three times lower than for traditional court room proceedings. From, Poland's e-courts gain popularity.
----- Barbara Olszowa
The European Convention on Human Rights turns 60
The European Convention on Human rights turned 60 this month.
In celebration of this event, the European Court of Human Rights has devoted a page to demonstrating the Convention in video and pictures. The page even has illustrations of the specific articles of the convention, such as the right to a fair trial:
Today the Court released ten judgments, and will release ten more on November 23rd, and then 17 more on the 25th.
Today's judgments included a ruling in Boutagni v. France, about a Moroccan national who argued that his expulsion from France would subject him to degrading treatment and torture. Recent judgments have included Alexseyev v. Russia (violation of peaceable right to assembly by a gay rights activist).
A subject heading search in Morris for the European Convention On Human Rights will redirect you towards Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (1950) where you will find hundreds of books in our collection.
----- Ryan Harrington
Researching Singapore Law
For an overview of the Singapore legal system, other than consulting the Foreign Law Guide and the law library Country-by-Country Guide, these open-source research guides are helpful. See here, here and here.
The primary law of Singapore consists of its Constitution, statutes, subsidiary legislation, and case law. The law library does not subscribe to the fee-based database on Singapore law, LawNet, yet much of the recent primary law of Singapore is available freely on the web.
Statutes Singapore Statutes Online includes major constitutional documents and recent statutes but does not include subsidiary legislation. The Singapore Parliament website covers bills from 2002, selective committee reports from 2004, and parliament reports/debates.
Case Law LawNet, hosted by the Singapore Academy of Law, provides free access to the current three months of decisions and judgments rendered by the Subordinate Courts and the Supreme Court. The Academy website also includes Law Reform Reports. Singapore Law Reports which cover selective Supreme Court decisions are available in Lexis. Singapore Academy of Law Annual Review of Singapore cases, basically a discussion of cases selected from the Singapore Law Reports, is available in HeinOnline and in print.
EGov Portal EGazettes, the electronic version of the Singapore Government Gazette, is published daily and available for free public viewing for 5 days. The government information portal provides links to government departments and selective current legislation.
Current Awareness Singapore Law Watch, managed also by the Singapore Academy of Law, provides links and RSS feed subscription to legislative updates, recent judgments and commentaries. CommonLII covers selective legislation, judgments and secondary sources including the Singapore Yearbook of International Law.
For the law library print collection, treatises relating to the law of Singapore are shelved in the Lower East Side foreign law collection with the call number KPP.
The Cost of Your Halloween Candy
A recent blog posting on website of the International Vision
Collective, dedicated to promoting universal values awareness, tells us of child worker exploitation in the
cocoa-growing industry in Ghana and the Ivory Coast by the Hershey Company, the largest American
candy producer and a purveyor of many Halloween treats from Almond Joy to
Kit-Kat. See, Fair Trade Chocolate Trumps Hershey's this Halloween.
Tulane University Law School’s Payson Center for International Development recently reported on the use of child labor in the cocoa sector in West Africa, citing Hershey as one company that needs to more closely supervise its supply chain. In response, many NGOs have called upon Hershey to
undertake fair trade practices and the abolition of child labor in the cocoa
industry. Hershey is alleged to be the only U.S. chocolate manufacturer that
has failed to adopt any type of labor certification, i.e., to have their labor
practices monitored by an organization that screens for the abuse of labor
In recent months the Yale Law Library has been increasing it
collection of materials dealing with global food issues. Examples of books recently
added to the collection include: Ensuring Global Food Safety: Exploring
Global Harmonization edited by Christine Boisrobert; The New Regulation and Governance of Food: Beyond the Food Crisis
by Terry Marsden; and, Food Crises and the WTO: World Trade Forum by Baris Karapinar and
A quick search of Labordoc, a bibliographic service of the International Labour Organization (ILO), brought up a report from 1996 entitled, Child labour and cocoa production in West Africa: The case of Côte d'Ivoire and Ghana, and another from 2007, Rooting out child labour from cocoa farms.
---- Daniel Wade
Finding cases from Canada
Finding cases from Canada has gotten much easier in recent years with the addition of online
resources. Both the Bluebook (19th ed.) and the Canadian Citation Committee now require a neutral citation if one exists. Neutral citations are in the format of case name, year [no brackets], court abbreviation (no periods), and document number. The court abbreviation is chosen by the court, and most Canadian courts have chosen their neutral citation abbreviation. Document number is usually a chronological number assigned to the decision. Parallel citations may follow the neutral citation if one (or more) exists. For example, Canada (Prime Minister) v. Khadr, 2010 SCC 3,  1 S.C.R. 44. This citation can easily by found on CanLII and can lead you to the proper neutral citation (SCC) and a parallel print citation (S.C.R.).
There are still plenty of print reporters to wander through as well. Cases from the
Supreme Court of Canada can be found in two reporters in order of Bluebook preference:
Other Federal Court cases are generally found in these reporters:
- Federal Court Reports (1971 - current) - KE138 .A21971
- from 1971 - 2003, the abbreviation is F.C.
- beginning in 2004, the abbreviation is now F.C.R.
- Exchequer Court Reports (1875 - 1971) - Canada 36 Ex241
Many of the Canadian
cases are online, free, and official.
CanLII is extremely helpful for sourcecites and bookpulls because it gives not only the neutral citation but also parallel citations. See, for example, Canada (Prime Minister) v. Khadr, 2009 FC 405 (April 23, 2009), 2009 FC 405 (CanLII),  1 F.C.R. 34, 188 C.R.R. (2d) 342, 341 F.T.R. 300.
Other online resources for finding Canadian cases are:
- Quicklaw (subscription)
- Westlaw and Lexis (passwords)
As always, please do not hesitate to see a librarian for assistance!
Finding cases from the United Kingdom
Cases from the UK are published in many reporters, both official and unofficial, and online in several databases. The new Bluebook (19th ed.) gives the names of the reporters considered authoritative and a list of acceptable online services. In fact, for cases after 2001, a neutral citation from BAILII, the British and Irish Legal Information Institute, is required (T2.42, p.408). An example of a neutral citation is, Glasgow Corp. v. Central Land Board,  UKHL 7.
Cases from England and Wales are often sought after for sourcecites and general research. As explained in the Bluebook (T2.42.1, p.414), cases after 1865 are published in and should be cited to the official Law Reports, which consists of many different sets of reporters including
- Appeal Cases (A.C.) - KD275.4
- Related earlier reporters in this series are:
- Chancery Division (Ch.) - KD276.3 .L39
- Queen's Bench (Q.B.) - KD277.7 .L39
- King's Bench (K.B.) - KD277.7 .L39 (same as above, but when a King reigned)
- Probate Division (P.) - KD279.3 .L39
- Family Division (Fam.) - KD279.4 .L39 (replacing Probate Division in 1972)
If the case cannot be found in Law Reports, you can use the following reporters, in order of preference:
- Weekly Law Reports (W.L.R.) - KD282
- All England Law Reports (All E.R.) - KD288 .A64
There are still more print reporters that can be used if needed, such as:
- Lloyd's Law Reports (L.L.R.) - KD1815 .A2 .L57
- Human Rights Law Reports - UK Cases (H.R.L.R.) - KD4080 .A38 H86
- UK Human Rights Reports (U.K.H.R.R.) - we do not have
- International Law Reports (I.L.R.) - KZ199 .I58
Finally, you can find cases from the United Kingdom in several databases:
As always, please feel free to see a librarian for assistance in this complicated quest. Also see this research guide.